The First Battle of Kernstown was fought on March 23, 1862, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, the opening battle of Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Arms is a profession that, if its principles are adhered to for success, requires an officer to do what he fears may be wrong ... if success is to be obtained. He ordered a hasty retreat down the Valley Pike from Strasburg. Gen. Richard B. Garnett (the Stonewall Brigade, Jackson's own first command)—attacked the Union artillery position on Pritchard Hill. At earliest light the Confederate skirmish line advanced in force driving the Union pickets back to their main line of battle. We are in for it. [4], Union forces retreated through the streets of Winchester and north on the Valley Pike to Martinsburg. "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War. "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War.. Attempting to tie down the Union forces in the Valley, under the overall command of Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, Jackson … 155–57; Robertson, pp. The Battle of Kernstown. Jackson's aide, Sandie Pendleton, obtained a clear view from the ridge of the Union forces arrayed against them and he estimated that there were 10,000. [8] Confederate pursuit was lethargic, as the troops were exhausted from the non-stop marching of the previous week under Jackson's command. The park has walking trails, a small museum and a visitor's center inside the farmhouse. 1st Michigan Cavalry (battalion): Lt. Col. 1st Squadron Pennsylvania Cavalry: Capt. Cozzens, p. 215, Eicher, p. 211; Salmon, p. 35, Kennedy, p. 78, and Clark, p. 71, cite 590 total Union casualties. Before, and between, America’s defining conflicts, mapmakers were busy documenting the locales that would become the seats of war. The First Battle of Kernstown was fought on March 23, 1862 near Winchester Virginia. On February 20, 1865, the United States Senate confirmed the posthumous award to Colonel Mulligan of the rank of brevet brigadier general of U.S. "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War.. John Sedgwick and Alpheus S. Williams) returning to the immediate vicinity of Washington, D.C., freeing up other Union troops to participate in Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign against Richmond. Gary Ecelbarger's book reveals a far different reality. 221–22; Robertson, pp. Although the battle was a Confederate tactical defeat, it represented a strategic victory for the South by preventing the Union from transferring forces from the Shenandoah Valley to reinforce the Peninsula Campaign against the Confederate capital, Richmond. So far as I can see, my course was a wise one; the best that I could do under the circumstances, though very distasteful to my feelings; I hope and pray to our Heavenly Father that I may never again be circumstanced as on that day. The First Battle of Kernstown was Jackson’s only tactical defeat in the Valley. Registration not required. Cool Spring. The casualty rate suffered by the Confederates of nearly 20% shows the severity of the fire they received from the enemy. John C. Breckinridge (1821-1875) was a politician who served as the 14th vice president of the United States and as a Confederate general during the Civil War If this were successful, his men could move down the spine of the ridge and get into the Union rear, blocking their escape route to Winchester. Despite the disparity in numbers, Jackson's attack was not simple folly that was easily and predictably repulsed. Attempting to tie down the Union forces in the Valley, under the overall command of Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, Jackson … Contributed by Kati Singel. He then deployed Brig. Sources. Volunteers to rank from July 23, 1864, the day before he was mortally wounded at the Second Battle of Kernstown… Cozzens, pp. Although the battle was a Confederate defeat, and in fact Jackson 's only defeat in the war, it represented a … Kernstown is considered to be the opening engagement of Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Nevertheless, many Union prisoners fell into Confederate hands. Jackson quickly placed a section of artillery on the hill to engage Union artillery on Bower's Hill at a range of less than half a mile. Kernstown, first battle of, 23 March 1862 Instead of attacking a small rearguard, Jackson’s 4,200 men found themselves up against a complete division, 9,000 strong. Captain George Wood wrote, “The roar of musketry was now deafening. The First Battle of Kernstown was fought on March 23, 1862, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, the opening battle of Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Aftermath. Details Date: March 21 Time: 9:00 … … 313–14; Walsh, p. 89; Cozzens, p. 207; Robertson, p. 345. His leading regiments (in particular the 21st North Carolina) came under heavy fire from Union forces deployed behind stone fences and were repulsed. 349–50. ": The First Battle of Kernstown. 25 Jan 2021: Knoxville Campaign: Little Round Top 1: AI5 : Little Round Top (part of the Battle of Gettysburg) Little Round Top 2: AI5 : Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks (not present), Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia Jackson pressed the pursuit for most of the night and allowed his exhausted soldiers only a few hours of sleep before dawn. Lawrence S. Marye, Pleasant's Virginia Battery (not engaged): Lt. James Pleasants, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 19:10. The center of the line (Camp Hill) was held by the cavalry supported by two guns. "Stonewall" Jackson's Campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War.Jackson enveloped the right flank of the Union Army under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks … Ewell then attempted a flanking movement to the right beyond the Millwood Road, but in response to orders from Banks, Donnelly withdrew through the town. In our map collection you will find historic maps, hundreds of our one-of-a kind troop movement maps, and numerous animated maps, in which the movements of battle come to life. Ecelbarger, Gary L. "We are in for it! First Battle of Kernstown – March 23, 1862. His columns were attacked at Middletown and again at Newtown (Stephens City) by Jackson's converging forces. William Firey, and Capt. Jackson, not known for his sense of humor, replied, "I think I am satisfied, sir. [10], Jackson refused to accept any responsibility for the defeat and subsequently arrested the commander of his old Stonewall Brigade, Brig. Brig. The engagements were fought in 23 different states and resulted in a total … The Confederates were temporarily able to counter this attack with their inferior numbers by firing fierce volleys from behind the stone wall. It was also his first independent battle – and his only tactical defeat. The following Confederate States Army units and commanders fought in the First Battle of Kernstown of the American Civil War.The Union order of battle is shown separately. Despite not being on the battlefield, Shields always maintained in later years that he was the only general ever to defeat "Stonewall" Jackson. The Confederates began bickering among themselves at the first important battle of the war. But Col. Erastus B. Tyler's brigade countered this movement, and, when Kimball's brigade moved to his assistance, the Confederates were driven from the field. Union artillery rolled onto these knolls and responded by discharging 700 rounds of shot and shell over the next five hours. Burwell-Morgan Mill Tour with Nathan Stalvey ... February 10 and 12, by appointment only, for those first vaccinated at Boyce on January 11. Union sharpshooters along Abrams Creek began picking off the cannoneers. Jackson's success in achieving force concentration early in the fighting allowed him to secure a more decisive victory which had escaped him in previous battles of the campaign. John Horner, West Augusta Battery, Virginia Artillery: Capt. [4], During the night, the advance of Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's division (four brigades) reached Buffalo Lick. "Stonewall" Jackson. At 9:00 A.M. on March 23, 1862, Confederate artillery unlimbered near the Valley Turnpike and fired on this height, called Pritchard's Hill, to begin the First Battle of Kernstown. Jackson turned his men around and, in one of the more grueling forced marches of the war, moved northeast 25 miles on March 22 and another 15 to Kernstown on the morning of March 23. Panic set in among the Confederates, and as Burks's brigade arrived, it was caught in the fleeing mob and forced to retreat. Seldom during the Civil War was a general officer as gallant and as capable as Garnett treated so unjustly.... By any objective standard, Garnett had done the best at Kernstown that could reasonably have been expected under the circumstances as they existed. Secondly, the high rate of loss shows the predicament that Jackson’s … [13] The Kernstown Battlefield Association owns and operates the Kernstown battlefields on the 1854 Pritchard-Grim Farm three miles southwest of Winchester, Va. Faces of Our Valley – WhiteHouse Foods – Gary Auerbach. Clark, pp. Jackson moved north from Woodstock and arrived before the Union position at Kernstown around 11 a.m., Sunday, March 23. The dying and the dead were lying thick upon the hillside, but neither army seemed to waver. Buy We Are in for It: The First Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862 1st Edition by Ecelbarger, Gary L. (ISBN: 9781572490536) from Amazon's Book Store. However, the soldier ignored him and kept running. The First Battle of Kernstown. The First Battle of Winchester, fought on May 25, 1862, in and around Frederick County, Virginia, and Winchester, Virginia, was a major victory in Confederate Army Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Contributor Names … Gordon's brigade was placed on the Union right on Bower's Hill with its left flank at the Valley Pike, supported by a battery of artillery. The strategic realignment of Union forces caused by Jackson's battle at Kernstown—the only battle he lost in his military career—turned out to be a strategic victory for the Confederacy. The confederate Army of the Valley under Lt. Gen. Jubal A. It was a tactical defeat for Jackson who unknowingly attacked a force about twice the size of his. July 23 Second Battle of Kernstown July 29 Mercersburg, PA July 30 Burning of Chambersburg August 2 Cumberland, MD August 4 New Creek, WV August 5 Shenansoah Valley August 7 Battle of Moorfield Federal cavalry caught McCausland’s brigade in camp by surprise after Union ‘Jesse Scouts’ dressed in Confederate grey captured the picket. McClellan claimed that the loss of these forces prevented him from taking Richmond during his campaign. ... Second Battle of Kernstown. Gary Ecelbarger's book reveals a far different reality. [3], Despite the Union victory, President Abraham Lincoln was disturbed by Jackson's audacity and his potential threat to Washington. Upload media Wikipedia: Instance of: battle: Part of: American Civil War: Location: Frederick County, Virginia: Point in time: 23 March 1862: 39° 08′ 35.16″ N, 78° 12′ 20.88″ W: Authority control Q2052376 Library of … The Second Battle of Kernstown was fought on July 24, 1864, at Kernstown, Virginia, outside Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. Cozzens, pp. Henry A. Cole, Capt. The First Battle of Kernstown was fought on March 23, 1862, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, the opening battle of Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Shows Confederate troop positions and names of some residents. "Stonewall" Jackson's Campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War. To the average Civil War student, the First Battle of Kernstown appears a hopeless, lopsided engagement where Jackson's forces never had a chance. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. He has also emerged as a … 168–75; Clark, pp. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. LC Civil War maps (2nd ed. During the winter of 1864-1865, Major General Philip H. Sheridan’s Union Army occupied the Lower Shenandoah Valley, taking crops and harvesting a valuable stand of timber from Pritchard’s property to build and supply the Army’s large … James Waters, Hampden Virginia Artilley: Capt. This was Major General Thomas J. Jackson’s first major battle in command of his own army. Category:First Battle of Kernstown. Clark, p. 71; Eicher, p. 211; Cozzens, pp. The Stonewall Brigade's withdrawal, which came after it received the bulk of the Union fire and suffered the majority of Confederate casualties, uncovered the right of Fulkerson's Brigade, forcing it to also withdraw and starting a panic. Jackson on March 22, Confederate … While a tactical defeat for the Confederates, and Jackson's only loss, the battle nevertheless was an important strategic victory. The first battle is one of the few blots on Jackson's record. Taylor marched under fire to a position overlapping the Union right and then attacked Bower's Hill. [4], Jackson's orders from Johnston were to prevent Banks's force from leaving the Valley, which it appeared they were now doing. Shelves: nonfiction, 19th-century-american-history, 20th-century-american-literature, history, american-civil-war, american-history. Jackson enveloped the right flank of the Union Army under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks and pursued it as it fled across the Potomac River into Maryland. Despite numerous officers being wounded,[7] Jackson's forces were in good order and nearly ready for an attack. Union casualties for the battle were 118 dead, 450 wounded, and 22 missing or captured, for a total of 590. Jackson's division had been withdrawing "up" the Valley (to the higher elevations at the southwest end of the Valley) to cover the flank of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army, withdrawing from the Centreville–Manassas area to protect Richmond. At the Battle of Manassas, the oversized egos of Generals Joseph Johnston and P.G.T. However, it was a strategic victory. But because of bad scouting and intelligence he was actually attacking advancing Union forces almost three times his strength. The First Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862, and co-wrote Shenandoah 1862 for Time Life Books’ Voices of the Civil War. He is a leading authority of the Civil War in the Shenandoah Valley and has been consulted frequently for historical interpretations of Civil War battlefields in the Valley. Confederate forces regrouped and brought up artillery. Free. The confusion attending … 140–52; Tanner, p. 103. Attempting to tie down the Union forces in the Valley, under the overall command of Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, Jackson received incorrect … Gen. George Crook and drove it from the Shenandoah Valley back over the Potomac River into … However, it was a strategic victory. That night, a cavalryman sat with Jackson by a campfire alongside the Valley Pike and jokingly said "It was reported that they were retreating, General, but I guess they were retreating after us." Oddly enough, Union … In late July, 1864, as Maj. Gen. Jubal Early withdrew south after the battle at Cool Spring, the... Civil War. The Second Battle of … Cozzens, pp. First Battle of Kernstown 23 March – Union forces defeat Confederates under "Stonewall" Bibliography of American Civil War battles and campaigns (18,920 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article ISBN 978-0-8078-3200-4. … He has also published biographies of Civil War generals “Black Jack” Logan and Frederick W. Lander, as well as military histories of the Shenandoah Valley campaign. By March 12, 1862, Banks occupied Winchester just after Jackson had withdrawn from the town, marching at a leisurely pace 42 miles up the Valley Pike to Mount Jackson. + Google Calendar + iCal Export. Although not on the field during the time of the battle, Shields informed superiors that his division defeated a Confederate force of at least 15,000 … The low, marshy ground stretching from here to the distant road lay uncontested throughout the five-hour artillery duel that opened the First Battle of Kernstown. He was replaced by Brig. Dense but great read about the Battle of Kernstown, a Civil War battle that is more obscure than it needs to be. Gary … Jackson’s aggressive movements caused great alarm to Gen. Shields. The soldier replied that he was out of ammunition. The scene changed dramatically at 2:00 p.m. when 900 Virginians marched toward this position from the leafless woods standing across the road. With no Union pursuit, the First Battle of Kernstown had ended. [6] He later wrote to his wife: I felt it my duty to [attack], in consideration of the ruinous effects that might result from postponing the battle until the morning. He called out to a soldier "Where are you going, man?" Beauregard were found to be too large for the same battlefield. The First Battle of Kernstown March 23, 1862. [3], Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks learned on May 24, 1862, that the Confederates had captured his garrison at Front Royal, Virginia, and were closing on Winchester, turning his position. "[9], Union casualties were 590 (118 killed, 450 wounded, 22 captured or missing),[2] Confederate 718 (80 killed, 375 wounded, 263 captured or missing). (First) Battle of Kernstown: AI CC. A lawyer from Abingdon, VA, Fulkerson received his … Banks made preparations to leave the Valley personally on March 23. [Martin, p. 51], As senior brigade commander, Kimball managed the Union forces on March 23 in Shields' absence. [6], In conjunction with Ewell's advance on the Front Royal Pike, Jackson advanced on the Valley Pike at early dawn in a heavy fog. The First Battle of Kernstown on March 23, 1862 was the opening battle of “Stonewall” Jackson’s famous Valley Campaign. Cozzens, p. 167; Clark, p. 67; Robertson, p. 340. There was no effective Union pursuit. John Keys, Independent companies, Maryland cavalry: Capt. Ignorant of Jackson's tactical blueprint, his brigade out of ammunition and outflanked, Garnett took the only sane course of action. The Confederate assault swept irresistibly forward over the crest in the face of determined resistance. O.R., Series I, Volume 12 (Part 1), p. 606. Battery "A" West Virginia Light Artillery, Battery "B" West Virginia Light Artillery, The Battle of Kernstown: Battle Maps, History Articles, Photos, and Preservation News (CWPT), Animated History of Jackson's Valley Campaign, Frederick County, Virginia in the American Civil War, Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=First_Battle_of_Kernstown&oldid=994023381, Battles of the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, Union victories of the American Civil War, Battles of the American Civil War in Virginia, Frederick County in the American Civil War, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Civil War Battles summary: The Civil War consisted of nearly 10,500 battles, engagements, and other military actions including nearly 50 major battles and about 100 others that had major significance. "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War. Gen. Richard B. Garnett, for retreating from the battlefield before permission was received. Kernstown, Battle of, 1862. Kernstown, First . Ewell advanced the regiments of Trimble's brigade, sending regiments to either side of the high ground to enfilade the Union position. … In addition to gaining a solid understanding of this battle, an understanding of the overall campaign for early 1862 will be provided. The devoutly religious Jackson preferred to avoid battles on the Sabbath, but throughout his Civil War career he did not hesitate when military advantage could be gained. Salmon, p. 33, cites 8,500 Union, 3,000 Confederate; Eicher, p. 209, cites 9,000 Union, 4,200 Confederate; Cozzens, p. 215, cites 6,352 Union engaged, 3,500 Confederate; Robertson, p. 340, cites Confederate strength of 2,700 infantry, 290 cavalry, and 24 guns; Clark, p. 65, cites 9,000 Union, and Confederate forces of 3,600 infantry, 600 cavalry, and 27 guns; NPS and CWSAC Report update cite 8,500 Union, 3,800 Confederate. After resting in Martinsburg, Banks command continued north to the Potomac river, crossing it at Williamsport. Though the Federals controlled the field of battle, the repercussions of this fight were felt in Washington. 1, pp. McClellan claimed that the … Jackson, finally realizing the strength of the force opposing him, sent out Col. Jesse Burks's brigade, which had been held in reserve, but by the time they arrived around 6 p.m., Garnett's Stonewall Brigade had run out of ammunition and he pulled them back, leaving Fulkerson's right flank exposed. Stamped on verso: 1299. With his other two brigades, Jackson sought to envelop the Union right by way of Sandy Ridge. Donnelly withdrew his brigade to a position closer to town with his right flank anchored on Camp Hill. This is a list of orders of battle, which list the known military units that were located within the field of operations for each battle. 208–10; Salmon, pp. Jackson tried in vain to rally his troops. With three enemy brigades in its front and three coming at its right flank, Gordon's Union brigade gave way and Union soldiers began streaming back into town. The battles are listed in chronological order by starting date (or planned start date). "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War. The First Battle of Kernstown March 23, 1862. Union plans for the Peninsula Campaign, an offensive against Richmond, were disrupted by Jackson's audacity, and thousands of Union reinforcements were diverted to the Valley and the defense of Washington, D.C.[4], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}39°10′38″N 78°10′28″W / 39.1773°N 78.1744°W / 39.1773; -78.1744. Winchester, May 25, 1862 After Kernstown General Banks led a newly reinforced and newly named army of the Department of the Shenandoah in pursuit of Jackson. He had two brigades of infantry under Colonels Dudley Donnelly and George Henry Gordon, a mixed brigade of cavalry under Brig. Kernstown Battlefield includes 388 acres of battlefield land from the first and second battles, including the Pritchard House, built in 1854, and yes, therefore part of the battle. In particular the yankees are hampered by having no overall commander; Kimball has to act as both overall commander and command a brigade too. Despite his injury, Shields sent part of his division south of Winchester and one brigade marching to the north, seemingly abandoning the area, but in fact halting nearby to remain in reserve. [4], Jackson then brought up the brigades of Fulkerson, Campbell and Elzey to support Winder. In pencil on verso: 2. found: Dyer. Jackson said. The battles of the Civil War are largely divided into the Eastern, Western, and Trans-Mississippi Theaters, with the bulk of the fighting taking place in the first two. [7], Jackson performed no personal reconnaissance before he sent Turner Ashby on a feint against Kimball's position on the Valley Turnpike while his main force—the brigades of Col. Samuel Fulkerson and Brig. O.R. Confederate loyalists in Winchester mistakenly informed Turner Ashby that Shields had left only four regiments and a few guns (about 3,000 men) and that these remaining troops had orders to march for Harpers Ferry in the morning. [4], Banks now deployed at Winchester to slow the Confederate pursuit. To his right, Col. Joseph Thouburn's division formed on Sandy Ridge. 215, 227–30; Salmon, p. 35; Tanner, p. 131. Jackson brought up the rest of his artillery and a duel ensued with the Union guns on Bower's Hill. To the average Civil War student, the First Battle of Kernstown appears a hopeless, lopsided engagement where Jackson's forces never had a chance. The Battle of Kernstown is the first of three scenarios given in the rules; it pits a significantly smaller confederate force against a larger union one, but the rebels have much better command. Lee). A Second Battle of Kernstown occurred in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. In doing so he saved the Valley army. Relief shown by hachures. 67–70; Robertson, pp. Gen. Richard Taylor's Louisiana brigade (led by the Louisiana Tigers) reinforced by two regiments of Fulkerson's brigade and backed up by Scott's brigade, to the left along Abrams Creek. His initial cavalry attack was forced back and he immediately reinforced it with a small infantry brigade. 340–42. He then turned over tactical command of his division to Col. Nathan Kimball, although throughout the battle to come, he sent numerous messages and orders to Kimball. 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