Fougere, Harvey, & Rainville (2011) Irish women often saved what little money they received from these jobs to donate to the Church or send home to relatives. Histoire Sociale/Social History 46, no. Then in 1997 the park was refurbished by the city with a memorial marked by the city's St. Patrick's Society and Famine 150 which was unveiled by Hon. The Irish Catholics (in contrast to the French) strongly supported Canada's role in the First World War. He says that in the ghettos of Toronto the fusion of an Irish peasant culture with traditional Catholism produced a new, urban, ethno-religious vehicle – Irish Tridentine Catholism. Most dramatically, they intermarried with Protestants at an unprecedented rate. Gallagher, "The Irish Immigration of 1847, "Trouble in the North End: The Geography of Social Violence in Saint John 1840-1860", https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=35&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Ontario&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=59&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=British+Columbia&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=48&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Alberta&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=24&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Quebec&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=12&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Nova+Scotia&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=46&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Manitoba&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=47&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Saskatchewan&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=0, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=13&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=New+Brunswick&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=10&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Newfoundland+and+Labrador&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=11&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Prince+Edward+Island&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=60&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Yukon&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=61&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Northwest+Territories&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=62&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&SearchText=Nunavut&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1&type=1, "Migration, Arrival, and Settlement before the Great Famine | Multicultural Canada", "The Call of the Wild Geese: An Ethnography of Diasporic Irish Language Revitalization in Southern and Eastern Ontario", "Winslow Papers: The Partition of Nova Scotia", "Saint John St. Patrick's Society clings to men-only tradition", "Culture - The Irish Language in New Brunswick - ICCANB", "Early Immigration – Prince Edward Island", "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts – Newfoundland and Labrador", The Irish in Ontario: A Study in Rural History, Piety and Nationalism: Lay Voluntary Associations and the Creation of an Irish-Catholic Community in Toronto 1850–1895, Irish Famine Immigration and the Social Structure of Canada West, Irish Migrants in the Canadas: A New Approach, What Determines Family Size? The Irish men also worked as kitchen staff, gardeners, horse groomers, stable muckers and caring for animals. The St. Patrick's Society of Saint John, founded in 1819, is still active today. "Community and Identity in Nineteenth Century Montreal: The Founding of Saint Patrick’s Church." The Irish were primarily Roman Catholic. Redclift (2003) concluded that many of the one million migrants, mainly of British and Irish origin, who arrived in Canada in the mid-19th century benefited from the availability of land and absence of social barriers to mobility. Some come on work and travel visas. Irish Heritage in Canada. Irish migration to the Prairie Provinces had two distinct components: those who came via eastern Canada or the United States, and those who came directly from Ireland. However, the city was split with tensions between Irish Catholics and Unionist Protestants. Between 1825 and 1845, 60% of all immigrants to Canada were Irish; in 1831 alone, some 34,000 arrived in Montreal. In 1847, dubbed "Black 47", one of the worst years of the Famine, some 16,000 immigrants, most of them from Ireland, arrived at Partridge Island, the immigration and quarantine station at the mouth of Saint John Harbour. Although a strict Covenanter, Sommerville initially ministered to Presbyterians generally over a very extensive district. most immigrants who enter canada are admitted as skilled workers. This enabled them to think and feel like citizens of the new country in a way denied them back in the old country. In comparison, the American Irish in the Northeast and Midwest were dominantly Catholic, urban dwelling, and ghettoized. The anthem "The Maple Leaf Forever", written and composed by Scottish immigrant and Orangeman Alexander Muir, reflects the pro-British Ulster loyalism outlook typical of the time with its disdainful view of Irish Republicanism. Throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century, European colonial administrations, charged with overseeing what would become Canada, did not consider settlement a priority. Patterns, Links and Letters, The Waning of the Green: Catholics, the Irish, and Identity in Toronto 1887–1922, Creed and Culture. Religion and Wealth in Urban Canada at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: An Exploratory Study,", Adrian Ciani, "'An Imperialist Irishman': Bishop Michael Fallon, the Diocese of London and the Great War,". Long a timber-exporting colony, New Brunswick became the destination of thousands of Irish immigrants in the form of refugees fleeing the famines during the mid-19th century as the timber cargo vessels provided cheap passage when returning empty to the colony. There was however, the existence of Irish-centric ghettos in Toronto (Corktown, Cabbagetown, Trinity Niagara, the Ward) at the fringes of urban development, at least for the first few decades after the famine and in the case of Trefann Court, a holdout against public housing and urban renewal, up to the 1970s. Today the society is still active in Newfoundland and is the oldest philanthropic organization in North America. As Ireland was primarily rural, most were unprepared for the industrialized cities they were to call home, so high-paying jobs were rare. The first recorded Irish presence in the area of present-day Canada dates from 1536, when Irish fishermen from Cork traveled to Newfoundland. An economic boom and growth in the years after their arrival allowed many Irish men to obtain steady employment on the rapidly expanding railroad network, settlements developed or expanded along or close to the Grand Trunk Railroad corridor often in rural areas, allowing many to farm the relatively cheap, arable land of southern Ontario. Irish men helped to build the railroad and would go away from family and friends to construct the railroads in the west. When the economy was strong, Irish immigrants to America were welcomed. Out-migration of Irish in Ontario (along with others) occurred during this period following economic downturns, available new land and mining booms in the US or the Canadian West. Besides Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), the Maritime colonies of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, especially Saint John, were arrival points. In 1847, dubbed "Black 47", one of the worst years of the Famine, some 16,000 immigrants, most of them from Ireland, arrived at Partridge Island, the immigration and quarantine station at the mouth of Saint John Harbour. In 1948, a referendum was held in Newfoundland as to its political future; the Irish Catholics mainly supported a return to independence for Newfoundland as it existed before 1934, while the Protestants mainly supported joining the Canadian Confederation. Irish immigrants have been crossing the Atlantic towards the Americas for centuries and many of those who made the first journeys were actually of a Protestant or Presbyterian background. [33], In 1967, at Reed's Point at the foot of Prince William Street, St. Patrick's Square was created to honour citizens of Irish heritage. Chinese workers were victims of discrimination: in addition to receiving lower wages for equivalent work, they did not enjoy the same benefits as Canadian workers. Canada is a country of immigrants. There is a secondary learning from the Swift & Co. story: this work has always been held by immigrant groups. "St. Patrick’s Day parades in nineteenth-century Toronto: Study of immigrant adjustment and elite control." Alongside French-Canadians, thousands of Irish laboured in difficult conditions and terrain. In 1806, The Benevolent Irish Society (BIS) was founded as a philanthropic organization in St. John's, Newfoundland for locals of Irish birth or ancestry, regardless of religious persuasion. After Confederation, Irish Catholics faced more hostility, especially from Protestant Irish in Ontario, which was under the political sway of the already entrenched anti-Catholic Orange Order. His primary motive was to advance the cause of Irish Catholics in Canada and abroad; he had significant support from the Vatican. [62], Tensions between the Irish Protestants and Irish Catholics were widespread in Canada in the 19th century, with many episodes of violence and anger, especially in Atlantic Canada and Ontario. Some, like Martin Cranney, held elective office and became the natural leaders of their augmented Irish community after the arrival of the famine immigrants. Another 650,000 residents of the New York area were children of Irish immigrants. There were also rural Irish village settlements throughout most of Guysborough County, such as the Erinville (meaning Irishville) /Salmon River Lake/Ogden/Bantry district (Bantry being named after Bantry Bay, County Cork, Ireland but abandoned since the 19th century for better farmland in places like Erinville/Salmon River Lake). Those who survived settled on marginal agricultural lands in the Miramichi River valley and in the Saint John River and Kennebecasis River valleys. By 1870, only the successful settlers, most of whom were farmers who raised grazing animals, remained. 70 from the Beckwith book (2.7). The migrations of the 17th and 18th centuries had little permanent impact on Canada, except in Newfoundland where many Irish worked as fishermen and lived in the kind of dire poverty they had hoped to escape by migration to New World. Until 1830 Irish immigrants mainly originated from Ulster in the north, many being Protestants, but afterwards increasingly they came from the south and west, many being Catholics. Because immigrants to Canada tend to be highly skilled this decline in higher-paid worker wages tends to lower wage inequality in Canada. ", Livio Dimatteo, "The Wealth of the Irish in Nineteenth-Century Ontario,", Peter Baskerville, "Did Religion Matter? The Irish often worked dangerous and low paying jobs creating roads and bridges across the country. The gender of immigrants to Canada in 2020 was just about an even split, with 141,046 male immigrants and 143,341 female immigrants. Nurses, doctors, priests, nuns, compatriots, some politicians and ordinary citizens aided them. According to the 2001 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39.4%), followed by Irish (39.7%), Scottish (6.0%), French (5.5%), and First Nations (3.2%). If the rich people in the city did not have a black servant, they often had an Irish one. The original Mi'kmaq inhabitants, Acadian French, Lowland Scots, Irish, Loyalists from New England, and English have all contributed to a history which has included cultural, religious, and political conflict as well as cooperation and synthesis. [3], As of the 2016 Canada Census, 4,627,000 Canadians, or 13.43% of the population, claim full or partial Irish ancestry.[1]. [38], In 1877, a breakthrough in Irish Canadian Protestant-Catholic relations occurred in London, Ontario. For the wealthier newcomers, business opportunities abounded. The Jubilee Riots of 1875 jarred Toronto in a time when sectarian tensions ran at their highest. Women generally entered into domestic service. With the help of Quebec's Catholic Church, they would establish their own churches, schools, and hospitals. In the years between 1815, when vast industrial changes began to disrupt the old life-styles in Europe, and Canadian Confederation in 1867, when immigration of that era passed its peak, more than 150,000 immigrants from Ireland flooded into Saint John. While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian", 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 Statistics Canada Ethnic Diversity Survey. Fearing for their jobs, residents of British Columbia were angered by the arrival of new immigrants, but in reality, Canadians were not willing to take on these treacherous jobs. In the census of 1851, over half the heads of households in the city registered themselves as natives of Ireland. St. Patrick's Day: a day of celebration in many cities across Canada. [53] They were in repeated political conflict—sometimes violent—with the Protestant Scots-Irish "Orange" element.[54]. Thousands died in Ontario that summer alone, mostly from typhus. In other respects the respondents had less in common, some being Catholic and some Protestant.[48]. Jeanne Dober has been a professional writer since 2007. The Colony of Newfoundland rebellion was the only one to occur which the British administration linked directly to the Irish Rebellion of 1798. Irish Farming Families in Nineteenth-Century Ontario, Irish Emigration and Canadian Settlement. The Place of English-Speaking Catholics in Canadian Society 1750–1930, "The Orange Order and Social Violence in Mid-nineteenth Century Saint John", Newfoundland: The Most Irish Place Outside of Ireland, The Shamrock and the Maple Leaf: Irish-Canadian Documentary Heritage at Library and Archives Canada, Irish-Canadian Documentary Heritage at Library and Archives Canada, Canada's AUBRY family traced to a BRENNAN who was the first Irish immigrant, Tec Cornelius Aubrenan: The First Irish Immigrant in Canada, The Canadian Association for Irish Studies (CAIS), Historica’s Heritage Minute video docudrama about “Orphans.”, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Irish_Canadians&oldid=1005003738, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cottrell, Michael. Following at least six months to two years of frantic job searching, the new immigrants (doctors, engineers, professors, bankers, business executives) are forced to take up ordinary low-paid jobs as factory workers, security guards, waiters or in supermarkets, call centres or convenience stores, which lead to their low morale and low self-esteem. The Famine immigrants: lists of Irish immigrants arriving at the port of New York, 1846-1851, edited by Ira Glazier. There are many communities in Ontario that are named after places and last names of Ireland, including Ballinafad, Ballyduff, Ballymote, Cavan, Connaught, Connellys, Dalton, Donnybrook, Dublin, Dundalk, Dunnville, Enniskillen, Erinsville, Galway, Hagarty, Irish Lake, Kearney, Keenansville, Kennedys, Killaloe, Killarney, Limerick, Listowel, Lucan, Maguire, Malone, McGarry, Moffat, Mullifarry, Munster, Navan, New Dublin, O'Connell, Oranmore, Quinn Settlement, Ripley, Shamrock, Tara, South Monaghan, Waterford and Westport. The uprising in St. John's was significant in that it was the first occasion on which the Irish in Newfoundland deliberately challenged the authority of the state, and because the British feared that it might not be the last. [26] Peter Robinson organized land settlements of Catholic tenant farmers in the 1820s to areas of rural Eastern Ontario, which helped establish Peterborough as a regional centre. [36], McGowan argues that between 1890 and 1920, the city's Catholics experienced major social, ideological, and economic changes that allowed them to integrate into Toronto society and shake off their second-class status. The Irish would go on to settle permanently in the close-knit working-class neighbourhoods of Pointe-Saint-Charles, Griffintown and Goose Village, Montreal. [32] These tensions had increased following the organized but failed Fenian Raids at points along the American border, which arose suspicions by Protestants of Catholics' sympathies toward the Fenian cause. Today, many Québécois have some Irish ancestry. Those who came in the earlier period were largely tradesmen, and many stayed in Saint John, becoming the backbone of its builders. The labourers were known as ‘navvies’ and built much of the early infrastructure in the province. William Sommerville (1800–1878) was ordained in the Irish Reformed Presbyterian Church and in 1831 was sent as a missionary to New Brunswick. Eastern Newfoundland was one of the few places outside Ireland where the Irish language was spoken by a majority of the population as their primary language. George Sheppard, "Starvation, Moral Ruin and a Frozen Grave: An Irish View of Victorian Canada". Quarantine hospitals were located on islands at the mouth of the colony's two major ports, Saint John (Partridge Island) and Chatham-Newcastle (Middle Island), where many would ultimately die. There, with missionary Alexander Clarke, he formed the Reformed Presbytery of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in 1832 before becoming minister of the West Cornwallis congregation in Grafton, Nova Scotia, in 1833. That being said, while they lead the list population-wise, these two provinces “trail” others on this list in other respects. [35], Likewise the new labour historians believe that the rise of the Knights of Labor caused the Orange and Catholic Irish in Toronto to resolve their generational hatred and set about to form a common working-class culture. Irish Canadians (Irish: Gaedheal-Cheanadaigh) are Canadian citizens who have full or partial Irish heritage including descendants who trace their ancestry to immigrants who originated in Ireland. Starting as unskilled labourers, they used high levels of education to move up and were well represented among the lower middle class. Murdoch (1998) notes that the popular image of Cape Breton Island as a last bastion of Scottish Highland and specifically Gaelic culture distorts the complex history of the island since the 16th century. He was instrumental in enshrining educational rights for Catholics as a minority group in the Canadian Constitution. At its peak in the summer of 1847, boatloads of sick migrants arrived in desperate circumstances on steamers from Quebec to Bytown (soon to be Ottawa), and to ports of call on Lake Ontario, chief amongst them Kingston and Toronto, in addition to many other smaller communities across southern Ontario. Furthermore, during the term of Commission of Government (1934–1949), the Orange Lodge was one of only a handful of "democratic" organizations that existed in the Dominion of Newfoundland. Female Irish immigrants took on jobs such as chambermaids, cooks and running errands for rich city dwellers. Mary Robinson, president of Ireland. [60], While some influential Canadian politicians anticipated that the assisted migrations of Irish settlers would lead to the establishment of a 'New Ireland' on Canada's prairies, or at least raise the profile of the country's potential as a suitable destination for immigrants, neither happened. The Irish press continued to warn potential emigrants of the dangers and hardships of life in Canada and encouraged would-be emigrants to settle instead in the United States.[61]. Contested sites and narratives of nation in Newfoundland". In response the Church built a network of charitable institutions such as hospitals, schools, boarding homes, and orphanages, to meet the need and keep people inside the faith. At the same time, ships with the starving also docked at Partridge Island, New Brunswick in similarly desperate circumstances. According to the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, what became known as the century-long "land question", originated with Patterson's failure as administrator of a colony whose lands were owned by a monopoly of British absentee proprietors who demanded rent from their Island tenants. The small group of Irish-born who arrived in the second half of the 20th century tended to be urban professionals, a stark contrast to the agrarian pioneers who had come before. In, Jenkins, W. "Between the Lodge and the Meeting-House: Mapping Irish Protestant Identities and Social Worlds in late Victorian Toronto,", Jenkins, W. "Patrolmen and Peelers: Immigration, Urban Culture, and the 'Irish Police' in Canada and the United States,". Along with traditional names, the Irish brought their native tongue. Many of the Irish-Canadians who came west were fairly well assimilated, in that they spoke English and understood British customs and law, and tended to be regarded as a part of English Canada. With the influx of immigrants, Canada’s population significantly increased, and Canada grew as a nation. Although the number of active members, and thus their influence, may have been overestimated, the Orange influence was considerable and comparable to the Catholic influence in Quebec. There’s a popular image of immigrants as people fleeing dire circumstances or an impoverished background in hopes of starting over in a new country. French-speaking Catholics in Ontario achieved wealth and status less readily than Protestants and Irish Catholics. With the downturn of Ireland's economy in 2010, Irish people are again coming to Canada looking for work. [33], The Orange Order, with its two main tenets, anti-Catholicism and loyalty to Britain, flourished in Ontario. The St. Patrick's Day Parade in Montreal is one of the oldest in North America, dating back to 1824. [46], The Miramichi River valley, received a significant Irish immigration in the years before the famine. Murphy, Terrence, and Gerald Stortz, eds. Emigration became an intrinsic part of Irish life before independence, especially from the Famine onwards. A case in point is Irish immigration to North Hastings County, Canada West, which happened after 1846. In more remote areas, employment centred around the Ottawa Valley timber trade which eventually extending into Northern Ontario along with railroad building and mining. What’s more, given BC’s vast shoreline and forest greenery and the oil which has played a large part in Alberta’s economic resurgence, the two regions represent a nice blend between the city and country. [29] The Catholic church was less successful in dealing with tensions between its French and the Irish clergy; eventually the Irish took control.[30][31]. According to professor emeritus, Brendan O'Grady, a history professor at the University of Prince Edward Island for fifty years, before the Great Famine[49]:4 of 1845–1852, in which a million Irish died and another million emigrated,[50]:226 the majority of Irish immigrants had already arrived on Prince Edward Island. By 1900, the Irish-born population of the New York City metropolitan area had grown to an estimated 366,000 people. [33]. But when the Great Famine raged between 1845 and 1852, huge waves of Famine refugees flooded these shores. Tu (2010) At a national level, increased immigration after policy changes in the late '80s did not affect the growth of wages for native-born Canadians. The United Irish Uprising occurred during April 1800, in St. John's, Newfoundland where up to 400 Irishmen had taken the secret oath of the Society of the United Irishmen. (AMICUS 3929163) The Irish in Canada, by David A. Wilson. First off, it’s important to know you’re not alone as a new immigrant in Canada! Historians are not sure who the murderer was, or what his motivations were. Even larger numbers of Catholics headed to the United States; others went to Great Britain and Australia. The Irish were thus a vital force for cohesion in an ethnically diverse frontier society, but also a source of major tension with elements that did not share their vision of how the province of Saskatchewan should evolve. Nearly 200,000 of the people in metropolitan Boston were from Ireland, and another 320,000 were children of Irish immigrants. In addition, most foreign-born individuals in Canada … [41], Ciani (2008) concludes that support of World War I fostered an identity among Irish Catholics as loyal citizens and helped integrate them into the social fabric of the nation. According to the Statistics Canada 2006 census, 21.5% of Newfoundlanders claim Irish ancestry (other major groups in the province include 43.2% English, 7% Scottish, and 6.1% French). If the rich people in the city did not have a black servant, they often had an Irish one. Newfoundland had acquired a name in the Irish language — “Talamh an Éisc” (translated as “land of fish”) — a singular distinction in the New World. Grace. Between 1830 and 1850, 624,000 Irish arrived; in contextual terms, at the end of this period, the population of the provinces of Canada was 2.4 million. [52], In May 1830 the first ship of families from County Monaghan, in the province of Ulster, Ireland accompanied by Father John MacDonald who had recruited them, arrived on the Island to settle in Fort Augustus, on the lots inherited by Father John MacDonald from his father Captain John MacDonald. Most of the Irish migration to Newfoundland was pre-famine (late 18th century and early 19th century), and two centuries of isolation have led many of Irish descent in Newfoundland to consider their ethnic identity "Newfoundlander", and not "Irish", although they are aware of the cultural links between the two. [39], Some writers have assumed that the Irish in 19th-century North America were impoverished. The Irish population essentially defined the Catholic population in Toronto until 1890, when German and French Catholics were welcomed to the city by the Irish, but the Irish were still 90% of the Catholic population. Thousands died or arrived sick and were treated in the hospital (equipped for less than one hundred patients) in the summer of 1847; in fact, many ships that reached Grosse-Île had lost the bulk of their passengers and crew, and much more died in quarantine on or near the island. 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