Classed as a Marsupial (as are Kangaroos and Koalas), the female Swamp Wallaby is smaller than the male. All wallabies were shot in autumn, 12 during April 2005 and 10 during March 2006, with each habitat type being represented in each year. The Swamp Wallaby is a shy animal that usually lives alone. Wallabies are almost identical to kangaroos but smaller. At the 5-year-old site where 5 wallabies were shot, home-range overlap ranged from 5.9% to 90.1%. It will eat a wide range of food plants, depending on availability, including shrubs, pasture, agricultural crops, and native and exotic vegetation. Generally active from dusk until dawn, swamp wallabies are mostly solitary animals, but may gather to feed during the evening. A comparison of diets between individuals living in 2 habitat types (unharvested forest and 5-year-old regenerating areas) showed that in both habitats forbs were the major dietary component, although moderate amounts of shrubs and monocots also were consumed. Unharvested-forest and 5-year-old regenerating sites were used to define 2 general habitat types for study, although some data also were collected from 10-year-old regenerating sites. During the dry season, these wallabies feed on moisture-rich roots, stems, and discard the leaves. 2006) and, presumably, by interactions between nutrients, toxins, and availability. However, the Swamps do not seem to tolerate the extreme cold as well as the Bennetts. A detailed description of the method can be found in Dowman and Collins (1982). Tracking was conducted in all weather and at all times of the day and night (night was defined as completely dark), and tracking was scheduled so that nocturnal and diurnal locations for each wallaby were spread approximately evenly throughout these periods. In cases where food types were neither used nor available, values were treated as missing but replaced by the mean of nonmissing values to calculate the ranking matrix. Diagram b): stress = 10.5, multiresponse permutation procedure: A = 0.05, P = 0.04. Due to their ability to breed all year round, the swamp wallaby is listed as a … Only correlations with a strong (≥0.70 or ≤−0.70) linear relationship with at least 1 axis are shown. Structurally, the ground layer is dominated by austral bracken (Pteridium esculentum), native grasses, and a seasonally abundant forb community (Department of Sustainability and Environment 2006; Land Conservation Council 1978). Our 2nd objective was to determine the relationship between the relative availability of food types and their selection at the scale of individual home ranges, and to reconcile the results against 2 alternative diet-choice strategies: specialization and mixed feeding. This result confirms the intuitive expectation that diet selection is a complex process that depends, among other factors, on the availability and quality of alternative forage, although we do not discount the possibility of spurious results given the relatively large ratio of predictors to experimental units. Consequently, the forb and tree models were rerun using traditional multiple regression after excluding the relative availability of trees and forbs, respectively. This was achieved for forbs by harvesting all plant material within a number (5–20, depending on local forb density) of 10-cm2 × 1.5-m-high subplots established along a 10-m transect. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. And in terms of shelter and the ability to hide from people and dogs, the lack of dense shrubby areas in these parks make them unsuitable. Confidence intervals around the selection index are in parentheses, and were derived using a bootstrapping procedure to account for asymmetry in some of the data sets. There is some evidence that swamp wallabies are opportunists, taking advantage of high-quality food resources when they become available (Osawa 1990). The lifespan of wallabies varies by species, but ranges from about 7 to 18 years. Overall diet consumption and selection at unharvested-forest and 5-year-old regenerating sites was analyzed with nonmetric multidimentional scaling using the Bray Curtis distance measure. A pooled sample was used to reflect an extended consumption period that was consistent with forage availability sampled from within the whole home range. Each sample of stomach contents was thoroughly mixed, placed in 4% sodium hypochlorite for 1 h, rinsed through a 125-μm sieve, and dyed in 1% gentian violet for 1 min. Wallabies cover vast distances for food and water, which is often scarce in their environment. On one hand, a positive relationship between selection and relative availability (positive frequency dependence) at the scale of an animal's home range is consistent with diet specialization as predicted by simple optimal foraging models, at least for preferred food types (Hubbard et al. In this case, up to 2 outliers were removed from each data set to meet analytical assumptions, although variances in the tree-selection model were still somewhat heterogeneous. 2002), Fortin et al. Interpreted as strong evidence for a positive correlation between tree selection and forb relative abundance because the lower confidence limit only just overlaps 0. Because of the low abundance of sedges, cover values of the monocot category were almost totally attributable to grass. On the basis of linear trends (Table 3), the difference was associated with selection of shrubs and forbs, with wallabies in the unharvested forest selecting shrubs more strongly and forbs less strongly (Table 2). 1990; Verheyden-Tixier et al. By removing seedlings and leaf litter, wallabies reduce food sources such as worms and insects for these birds. 1977). Swamp wallabies forage widely, eating a variety of ferns, heath and shrubs. The wallabies used in this study (see below) were tracked for 268 ± 78 days (mean ±95% confidence interval [95% CI]) and were located 50.0 ± 6.5 times. Wallabies make up the bulk of the group, which also includes tree-kangaroos, rock-wallabies, and the quokka. Univariate models of frequency dependence for each of the 5 food types. Half (10/20) of the overlaps were < 20%, whereas the mean overlap was 32.4%. 2002; Perry and Pianka 1997; Westoby 1978) may render simple optimal diet models inappropriate on many occasions. Nine unharvested-forest, five 5-year-old, and three 10-year-old sites within an area of about 5,000 ha had already been selected as part of another project (Di Stefano et al., in press), and in the present study we collected data from 7, 4, and 3 of these, respectively. These data have most often demonstrated frequency independence (Bergvall and Leimar 2005; Chevallier-Redor et al. In addition, all estimates are relatively precise at 5-year-old sites, indicating reduced variation between individuals. Finally, the results of this study relate to the consumption of broad plant groups in autumn within areas defined by home-range boundaries and should not be extended to other times or spatial scales. On a number of occasions (e.g., monocot model and shrub model), 1 or more of the forage-quality variables had a moderate negative influence on selection, but the a priori expectation was that correlations would be positive if a causal relationship existed. Wallaby Deterrents. 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