The bone was interpreted as a possible Neanderthal ‘flute’, but some scholars have firmly rejected this hypothesis on the basis of taphonomic observations, suggesting a carnivore origin for the holes. The Divje Babe flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia. The tooth spans were analyzed by all taphonomists concerned to see if any animals could bite two or more such holes at once. The figured ‘bone flutes’ of Divje Babe Cave 1, Mokriška Jama Cave and all other Slovenian ‘pseudo-bone flutes’ are housed in the National Museum in Ljubljana, Slovenia and Hungary (NMLS). /Photo: Tomaž Lauko. Kebara Cave is an Israeli limestone cave locality in Wadi Kebara, situated at 60 to 65 m above sea level on the western escarpment of the Carmel Range, in the Ramat HaNadiv preserve of Zichron Yaakov. Bones with holes such as those found in the Potok Cave have been ascribed to modern human Cro-Magnon,  and Mitja Brodar asserts that they are an element of the Central European Aurignacian. Archaeologists ask two key questions: Is it a flute? Download Citation | The Mousterian Musical Instrument from the Divje babe I cave (Slovenia): Arguments on the Material Evidence for Neanderthal Musical Behaviour | In … However, in recent years the consensus that the Divje Babe flute is an authentic musical instrument has been growing as the view of Neanderthals has changed from subhuman brutes to more sophisticated humans. As it includes music from numerous cultures, it is often seen as being a part of ethnomusicology, and indeed a study group looking into music archaeology first emerged from ethnomusicological group the ICTM, not from within archaeology. During regular archaeological excavations several flutes, that date to the European Upper Paleolithic have been discovered in caves in the Swabian Alb region of Germany. The colour of the marrow cavity does not differ from the colour of the external surface of the bone. The Cave of the Angel refers to several cave-related structures located in the Aras mountain range near the town of Lucena, Córdoba province in Spain. An examination of the specimen using computed tomography was published in 2005 by Ivan Turk, in which he concluded that "the two partially preserved holes were formerly created before the damage...or before the indisputable intervention of a carnivore. In a 2011 article, Matija Turk published the results of a collaboration with Ljuben Dimkaroski, an academic musician who had made replicas of the artifact.  According to the museum's statements, the presumed flute has been associated with the "end of the middle Pleistocene" and with Neanderthals, about 55,000 years ago. These bones are preserved today at the National History Museum of Slovenia as well. It served as a lair for cave bear during the last glaciation, but was also used by people - first Neanderthals and then Cro-Magnons. The origin of music itself is very difficult to determine because in all probability, it is likely to have begun with singing and clapping or beating the hands on different surfaces, for which there... Elasmotherium, also known as the Giant Rhinoceros or the Giant Siberian Unicorn, is an extinct species of rhino that lived in the Eurasian area in the Late Pliocene and Pleistocene eras. Yet, I highly suspect just the OPPOSITE is true! Credit: BoBo]. The man is shown holding a ring. The spacing of the holes on a modern diatonic (minor scale) flute are unique, and not evenly spaced. I believe it is D (I know for sure that it isn't C) Dorian mode begins on what note? , In 1995, archeologist Ivan Turk of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts found the approximately 43,100-year-old   cave bear femur at the Divje Babe site near a Mousterian hearth. Says Nowell, '[Turk's] willing to give it the benefit of the doubt, whereas we're not.' The Divje Babe flute, discovered in a cave in Slovenia in 1995, has long been heralded as the oldest musical instrument ever discovered. The seat of the municipality is the town of Idrija. Using cave-bear bone accumulations to assess the Divje Babe I bone 'flute, "Archaeological Evidence for the Emergence of Language, Symbolism, and Music—An Alternative Multidisciplinary Perspective", "Neanderthal Flute: Oldest Musical Instrument's 4 Notes Matches 4 of Do, Re, Mi Scale", "Odds calculated against Neanderthal flute being a chance product of animal bites", "ESR Dating Human Cultural Evolution and Climatic Change During the Late Pleistocene at Divje Babe I, Slovenia", "Who made Neanderthal Flute?  They published photos of several bones with holes in them which had more or less circular holes similar to those found in the artifact, but they did not have a single bone coming even close to the linear alignment of Turk's holes. Researchers working at this site have uncovered more than 600 archaeological finds in at least ten levels, including 20 hearths with evidence of habitation by Neanderthals about 55,000 years ago. The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia. This symbol consists of a winged disc with a man emerging from it. The presence of marrow suggests that no one had bothered to hollow out the bone as if to create an end-blown flute. Furthermore, all are in the proper ratio of bore size to hole size found in most flutes, and the bone is the kind (femur) usually used for bone flutes. Ivan Turk, who led the excavation, discovered the ‘bone flute’ laid beside a hearth once used by Neanderthals. 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Divje babe II liegt wenige Gehminuten bergauf, in ihr wurden nach zwei Sondagen bislang keine weiteren … Fink, Bob, 2002-3, "The Neanderthal flute and origin of the scale: fang or flint? Wallin, Nils, Björn Merker, and Steven Brown, eds. Potok Cave is a cave in northern Slovenia, declared a high-elevation archaeological and paleontological site, occupied approximately 35,000 years BP by anatomically modern humans of the Aurignacian culture during the Upper Paleolithic. The maximum diameter of the two complete holes is 9.7 mm (0.38 in) and 9.0 mm (0.35 in). 2005. Archeologists have found the delicate... One of the ancient technologies that is often overlooked is the creation of musical instruments. , Iain Morley, despite his holding the carnivore-origin hypothesis, observed in his November 2006 article that, "[w]hilst the collections of cave bear bones examined by D'Errico...as well as those discussed by Turk...do show similar shaped and damaged holes...none of these occur in the diaphysis of a femur," as is found on the reputed flute. Turk et al. I think the good doctor needs to return to college and this time pay attention especially to subjects like “Researth Methods.” There is absolutely NOTHING in association with this flute that indicates it is only mere knawings of a hyena or any other animal. Humans or carnivores? The good doctor has summarily dismissed out of hand all evidence of Neanderthals making flutes. For some scientists, this conclusion was just too much to swallow. The early arrival and disappearance of Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis, the appearance, complete evolution and eventual demise of Homo neanderthalensis and the immigration and successful settlement of Homo sapiens all have taken place during the European Paleolithic. Turk wrote, in his book and in his article in MIT's Origins of Music anthology, the bone shows no "counter-bites" that one would normally expect on the other side of the bone matching the immense pressure necessary for a bite to make the center holes. He was a son of Srečko Brodar, a pioneer of the study of the Paleolithic period in Slovenia. Marcel Otte (director of the Museum of Prehistory, University of Liege, Belgium) pointed out in an April 2000 article in Current Anthropology that there is a possible thumb-hole on the opposite side of the Divje Babe bone, which, making five holes, would perfectly fit a human hand.  An equally critical issue is that, if the holes in this "flute" are of artificial origin, to date there does not seem to be any available means to determine whether they were deliberately drilled 43 thousand years ago, or are of a more contemporary origin (as part of an elaborate hoax, perhaps). They have also found the skeletal remains of numerous cave bears. The flute is kept by the National Museum of Ljubljana. Gudi literally means "bone flute". Prehistoric music is followed by ancient music in different parts of the world, but still exists in isolated areas. "Rezultati računalniške tomografije najstarejše domnevne piščali iz Divjih bab I (Slovenija): prispevek k teoriji luknjanja kosti", "Results of Computer Tomography of the Oldest Suspected Flute from Divje Babe I (Slovenia): Contribution to the Theory of Making Holes in Bones" (English & Slovenian). 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